Etude des acteurs et des interactions entre les voies de recombinaison chez Arabidopsis thaliana

Abstract : The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by recombination is essential for the maintenance of genome integrity of all living organisms. However, recombination must be finely regulated as it can generate mutations or chromosomal rearrangements, sometimes extremely deleterious to the cell. DSB can be repaired by two classes of recombination mechanism: non-homologous recombination (or DNA End Joining) or homologous recombination (implicating DNA sequence homology between the recombining molecules). In somatic cells, the two main pathways of homologous recombination (HR) are RAD51-dependent Synthesis Dependent Strand Annealing (SDSA) and RAD51-independent Single Strand Annealing (SSA). Our results have demonstrated an unexpected role of XRCC2, RAD51B and RAD51D - three RAD51 paralogues – in the SSA pathway. We confirmed that the function of XRCC2 in SSA does not depend upon RAD51, thus demonstrating that some RAD51 paralogues have acquired RAD51 recombinase-independent functions. The different severities of individual mutant phenotypes and epistasis analyses carried out on the double and triple mutants suggest individual functions of these proteins in SSA recombination. We propose that they facilitate hybridization of the two complementary sequences located on both sides of the break, although this remains to be confirmed by in vitro experiments. Study of the roles of XPF-ERCC1 - a complex involved in the cleavage of non-homologous DNA ends during HR - revealed an inhibitory role of this complex on the SDSA pathway. This is dependent on its endonuclease activity and is probably due to the cleavage of long 3' ends performing the homologous DNA duplex invasion, the initial step of the SDSA pathway. Our analyses also confirmed that the role of the complex depends on the length of the nonhomologous ends, as seen in mammals and yeasts. Although XPF-ERCC1 is essential for the cleavage of long nonhomologous DNA ends, it is not required for the elimination of short ends during HR.
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Heïdi Serra. Etude des acteurs et des interactions entre les voies de recombinaison chez Arabidopsis thaliana. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22483⟩. ⟨tel-01295033⟩

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