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Sleep-disordered breathing in adolescents with obesity: When does it start to affect cardiometabolic health?

Abstract : Background and aims: Pediatric obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with cardiometabolic risk (CMR), but the degree of severity at which SDB affects cardiometabolic health is unknown. We assessed the relationship between the CMR and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), to identify a threshold of AHI from which an increase in the CMR is observed, in adolescents with obesity. We also compared the clinical, cardiometabolic and sleep characteristics between adolescents presenting a high (CMR+) and low CMR (CMR-), according to the threshold of AHI. Methods and results: 114 adolescents with obesity were recruited from three institutions specialized in obesity management. Sleep and SDB as assessed by polysomnography, anthropometric parameters, fat mass (FM), glucose and lipid profiles, and blood pressure (BP) were measured at admission. Continuous (MetScoreFM) and dichotomous (metabolic syndrome, MetS) CMR were determined. Associations between MetScoreFM and AHI adjusted for BMI, sex and age were assessed by multivariable analyses. Data of 82 adolescents were analyzed. Multivariable analyses enabled us to identify a threshold of AHI = 2 above which we observed a strong and significant association between CMR and AHI (Cohen's d effect-size = 0.57 [0.11; 1.02] p = 0.02). Adolescents with CMR+ exhibited higher MetScoreFM (p < 0.05), insulin resistance (p < 0.05), systolic BP (p < 0.001), sleep fragmentation (p < 0.01) and intermittent hypoxia than CMR- group (p < 0.0001). MetS was found in 90.9% of adolescents with CMR+, versus 69.4% in the CMR- group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The identification of a threshold of AHI ≥ 2 corresponding to the cardiometabolic alterations highlights the need for the early management of SDB and obesity in adolescents, to prevent cardiometabolic diseases.
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https://hal.uca.fr/hal-03013151
Contributor : David Thivel <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, November 18, 2020 - 7:01:55 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, November 26, 2020 - 2:26:03 PM

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David Thivel, Johanna Roche, Flavia Corgosinho, Ana Dâmaso, Laurie Isacco, et al.. Sleep-disordered breathing in adolescents with obesity: When does it start to affect cardiometabolic health?. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Elsevier, 2020, 30 (4), pp.683-693. ⟨10.1016/j.numecd.2019.12.003⟩. ⟨hal-03013151⟩

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