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Crystal-mush reactivation by magma recharge: Evidence from the Campanian Ignimbrite activity, Campi Flegrei volcanic field, Italy

Abstract : Processes of crystal-mush remobilization by mafic magma recharges are often related to the outpouring of largevolumes of silicic melt during caldera-forming eruptions. This occurred for the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) erup-tion (Campi Flegrei, Italy), which produced a voluminous trachy-phonolitic ignimbrite in southern-central Italyabout 40 ka ago. We focussed on the proximal-CI deposits at San Martino that are composed of a main sequenceof early-erupted, crystal-poor units and a late-erupted (post-caldera collapse) crystal-rich Upper Pumice FlowUnit (UPFU). Detailed micro-analytical geochemical data were performed on glasses and crystals of pyroclastsfrom these deposits and coupled with Sr-Nd isotopic measurements on glasses. Results show that the CI eruptionwas fed by two distinct melts for the early-erupted units and the late UPFU, respectively. The glasses of the early-erupted units have negative Eu anomalies and show more evolved compositions and higher Nd isotope ratiosthan those of the UPFU, which have positive Eu/Eu*. The magmas of the early units formed the main volume oferuptible meltof the CI reservoir, and are interpretedashaving beenextractedfrom cumulate crystal-mushwith-out a vertical geochemical gradient within the magma reservoir. The data indicate that the generation of thedistinctive UPFU melts involved the injection of a new batch of mafic magma into the base of the CI reservoir.The mafic magma allowed heating and reactivation of the CI crystal-mush by melting of low-Or sanidines(+/−low-An plagioclases), leaving high-An plagioclases and high-Mg# clinopyroxenes as residual phases anda crystal-mush melt, made of 20% of the initial mush interstitial melt (with a composition similar to the early-erupted units) and 80% of sanidine melt. When the mush crystallinity was sufficiently reduced, the maficmagma was able to penetrate into the reactivated crystal-mush, mixing with variable proportions of crystal-mush melt and generating cooler hybrid melts, which underwent further crystallization of high-Or sanidine atvariable degrees (10–25%). Finally, possibly a short time before the eruption, the UPFU magmas were able tomix and mingle with the crystal-poor eruptible melts still persisting in the CI reservoir at the time of UPFU emis-sion. We suggest that the complex mechanisms described for the magma evolution feeding the CI eruption mayoccur whenever a crystal-mush is reactivated by new mafic magma inputs
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Sara Di Salvo, Riccardo Avanzinelli, Roberto Isaia, Alberto Zanetti, Tim Druitt, et al.. Crystal-mush reactivation by magma recharge: Evidence from the Campanian Ignimbrite activity, Campi Flegrei volcanic field, Italy. Lithos, Elsevier, 2020, 376-377, pp.105780. ⟨10.1016/j.lithos.2020.105780⟩. ⟨hal-02976182⟩