A. Alvarado, Néotectonique et Cinématique de la Déformation Continentale en Equateur, 2012.

A. Alvarado, L. Audin, J. M. Nocquet, E. Jaillard, P. Mothes et al., Partitioning of oblique convergence in the Northern Andes subduction zone: Migration history and the present-day boundary of the North Andean Sliver in Ecuador, Tectonics, vol.35, issue.5, pp.1048-1065, 2016.

A. Alvarado, L. Audin, J. M. Nocquet, S. Lagreulet, M. Segovia et al., Active tectonics in Quito, Ecuador, assessed by geomorphological studies, GPS data, and crustal seismicity, Tectonics, vol.33, issue.2, pp.67-83, 2014.

S. J. Angster, S. G. Wesnousky, P. M. Figueiredo, L. A. Owen, and S. J. Hammer, Late Quaternary slip rates for faults of the central Walker Lane (Nevada, USA): Spatiotemporal strain release in a strike-slip fault system, Geosphere, vol.15, issue.5, pp.1460-1478, 2019.

S. Araujo, Travel Time Tomography of the Crust and the Mantle Beneath Ecuador From Data of the National Seismic Network, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01530749

J. A. Aspden and M. Litherland, The geology and Mesozoic collisional history of the Cordillera Real, Ecuador, Tectonophysics, vol.205, issue.1-3, pp.187-204, 1992.

S. Atzori, C. Tolomei, A. Antonioli, J. P. Merryman-boncori, S. Bannister et al., The 2010-2011 Canterbury, New Zealand, seismic sequence: Multiple source analysis from InSAR data and modeling, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.117, issue.B8, pp.n/a-n/a, 2012.

M. Bablon, X. Quidelleur, P. Samaniego, J. Le-pennec, L. Audin et al., Interactions between volcanism and geodynamics in the southern termination of the Ecuadorian arc, Tectonophysics, vol.751, pp.54-72, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02027965

S. Baize, L. Audin, T. Winter, A. Alvarado, L. Pilatasig-moreno et al., Paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology of the Pallatanga fault (Central Ecuador), a major structure of the South-American crust, Geomorphology, vol.237, pp.14-28, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01400739

F. Barberi, L. Belloni, L. Ferrari, G. Pasquare, F. Previtali et al., Riesgo Sismico, Tech. Rep. Coca-Codo Sinclair Project, p.294, 1988.

C. Beauval, J. Marinière, H. Yepes, L. Audin, J. ?. Nocquet et al., A New Seismic Hazard Model for Ecuador, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.108, issue.3A, pp.1443-1464, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01856077

C. Beauval, H. Yepes, W. H. Bakun, J. Egred, A. Alvarado et al., Locations and magnitudes of historical earthquakes in the Sierra of Ecuador (1587-1996), Geophysical Journal International, vol.181, pp.1613-1633, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ird-00484909

C. Beauval, H. Yepes, P. Palacios, M. Segovia, A. Alvarado et al., An Earthquake Catalog for Seismic Hazard Assessment in Ecuador, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.103, issue.2A, pp.773-786, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00830183

B. Bernard and D. Andrade, Volcanes cuaternarios del Ecuador continental, 2016.

G. P. Biasi and S. G. Wesnousky, Steps and Gaps in Ground Ruptures: Empirical Bounds on Rupture Propagation, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.106, issue.3, pp.1110-1124, 2016.

G. P. Biasi and S. G. Wesnousky, Bends and Ends of Surface Ruptures, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.107, issue.6, pp.2543-2560, 2017.

C. Bronk-ramsey, Bayesian Analysis of Radiocarbon Dates, Radiocarbon, vol.51, issue.1, pp.337-360, 2009.

J. Champenois, S. Baize, M. Vallee, H. Jomard, A. Alvarado et al., Evidences of Surface Rupture Associated With a Low-Magnitude (M w 5.0) Shallow Earthquake in the Ecuadorian Andes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.122, issue.10, pp.8446-8458, 2017.

J. Champenois, V. Pinel, S. Baize, L. Audin, H. Jomard et al., Large-scale inflation of Tungurahua volcano (Ecuador) revealed by Persistent Scatterers SAR interferometry, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.41, issue.16, pp.5821-5828, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02614039

T. Chartier, O. Scotti, and H. Lyon?caen, SHERIFS: Open?Source Code for Computing Earthquake Rates in Fault Systems and Constructing Hazard Models, Seismological Research Letters, vol.90, pp.1678-1688, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02325982

C. M. Clapperton, Glacial and volcanic geomorphology of the Chimborazo-Carihuairazo Massif, Ecuadorian Andes, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, vol.81, issue.2, pp.91-116, 1990.

Y. Deniaud, P. Baby, C. Basile, M. Ordoñez, G. Montenegro et al., Ouverture et évolution tectono-sédimentaire du golfe de guayaquil : bassin d'avant-arc néogène et quaternaire du sud des andes équatoriennes, Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, vol.328, issue.3, pp.181-187, 1999.

J. F. Dumont, E. Santana, and W. Vilema, Morphologic evidence of active motion of the Zambapala Fault, Gulf of Guayaquil (Ecuador), Geomorphology, vol.65, issue.3-4, pp.223-239, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00407432

J. F. Dumont, E. Santana, W. Vilema, K. Pedoja, M. Ordóñez et al., Morphological and microtectonic analysis of Quaternary deformation from Puná and Santa Clara Islands, Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador (South America), Tectonophysics, vol.399, issue.1-4, pp.331-350, 2005.

S. Dumont, Y. Klinger, A. Socquet, C. Doubre, and E. Jacques, Magma influence on propagation of normal faults: Evidence from cumulative slip profiles along Dabbahu-Manda-Hararo rift segment (Afar, Ethiopia), Journal of Structural Geology, vol.95, pp.48-59, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01862668

C. B. Duross, S. F. Personius, A. J. Crone, S. S. Olig, M. D. Hylland et al., Fault segmentation: New concepts from the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah, USA, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.121, issue.2, pp.1131-1157, 2016.

Y. Farbod, E. Shabanian, O. Bellier, M. R. Abbassi, R. Braucher et al., Spatial variations in late Quaternary slip rates along the Doruneh Fault System (Central Iran), Tectonics, vol.35, issue.2, pp.386-406, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01420765

E. H. Field, R. J. Arrowsmith, G. P. Biasi, P. Bird, T. E. Dawson et al., Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3 (UCERF3)--The Time-Independent Model, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.104, issue.3, pp.1122-1180, 2014.

E. Fiorini and A. Tibaldi, Quaternary tectonics in the central Interandean Valley, Ecuador: Fault-propagation folds, transfer faults and the Cotopaxi Volcano, Global and Planetary Change, vol.90-91, issue.91, pp.87-103, 2012.

J. M. Fletcher, O. J. Teran, T. K. Rockwell, M. E. Oskin, K. W. Hudnut et al., Assembly of a large earthquake from a complex fault system: Surface rupture kinematics of the 4 April 2010 El Mayor?Cucapah (Mexico) Mw 7.2 earthquake, Geosphere, vol.10, issue.4, pp.797-827, 2014.

Y. Font, M. Segovia, S. Vaca, and T. Theunissen, Seismicity patterns along the Ecuadorian subduction zone: new constraints from earthquake location in a 3-D a priori velocity model, Geophysical Journal International, vol.193, issue.1, pp.263-286, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00873478

K. L. Frankel, J. F. Dolan, L. A. Owen, P. Ganev, and R. C. Finkel, Spatial and temporal constancy of seismic strain release along an evolving segment of the Pacific?North America plate boundary, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol.304, issue.3-4, pp.565-576, 2011.

R. Gold, C. Depolo, R. Briggs, A. Crone, and J. Gosse, Late Quaternary Slip?Rate Variations along the Warm Springs Valley Fault System, Northern Walker Lane, California?Nevada Border, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.103, issue.1, pp.542-558, 2013.

P. J. Haeussler, D. P. Schwartz, T. E. Dawson, H. D. Stenner, J. J. Lienkaemper et al., Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution of the Denali and Totschunda Faults in the 3 November 2002 M 7.9 Earthquake, Alaska, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.94, issue.6B, pp.S23-S52, 2004.

M. L. Hall, P. Samaniego, J. L. Le-pennec, and J. B. Johnson, Ecuadorian Andes volcanism: A review of Late Pliocene to present activity, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.176, issue.1, pp.1-6, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00364407

I. J. Hamling, S. Hreinsdóttir, K. Clark, J. Elliott, C. Liang et al., Complex multifault rupture during the 2016Mw7.8 Kaik?ura earthquake, New Zealand, Science, vol.356, issue.6334, p.eaam7194, 2017.

R. A. Hughes and L. F. Pilatasig, Cretaceous and Tertiary terrane accretion in the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes of Ecuador, Tectonophysics, vol.345, issue.1-4, pp.29-48, 2002.

E. Jaillard, H. Lapierre, M. Ordoñez, J. T. Álava, A. Amórtegui et al., Accreted oceanic terranes in Ecuador: southern edge of the Caribbean Plate?, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol.328, issue.1, pp.469-485, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00173873

J. Kearse, T. A. Little, R. J. Van-dissen, P. M. Barnes, R. Langridge et al., Onshore to Offshore Ground?Surface and Seabed Rupture of the Jordan?Kekerengu?Needles Fault Network during the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaik?ura Earthquake, New Zealand, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.108, issue.3B, pp.1573-1595, 2018.

E. Kendrick, M. Bevis, R. Smalley, B. Brooks, R. B. Vargas et al., The Nazca?South America Euler vector and its rate of change, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol.16, issue.2, pp.125-131, 2003.

E. Kirby, S. Anandakrishnan, F. Phillips, and S. Marrero, Late Pleistocene slip rate along the Owens Valley fault, eastern California, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.35, issue.1, p.1304, 2008.

Y. Klinger, X. Xu, P. Tapponnier, J. Van-der-woerd, C. Lasserre et al., High-Resolution Satellite Imagery Mapping of the Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution of the Mw 7.8, 14 November 2001 Kokoxili Earthquake, Kunlun Fault, Northern Tibet, China, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.95, issue.5, pp.1970-1987, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00110814

R. M. Langridge, J. Rowland, P. Villamor, J. Mountjoy, D. B. Townsend et al., Coseismic Rupture and Preliminary Slip Estimates for the Papatea Fault and Its Role in the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaik?ura, New Zealand, Earthquake, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.108, issue.3B, pp.1596-1622, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02393234

A. Lavenu, T. Winter, and F. Dávila, A Pliocene-Quaternary compressional basin in the Interandean Depression, Central Ecuador, Geophysical Journal International, vol.121, issue.1, pp.279-300, 1995.

A. Lin, T. Ouchi, A. Chen, and T. Maruyama, Co-seismic displacements, folding and shortening structures along the Chelungpu surface rupture zone occurred during the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake, Tectonophysics, vol.330, issue.3-4, pp.225-244, 2001.

N. J. Litchfield, P. Villamor, R. J. Dissen, A. Nicol, P. M. Barnes et al., , 2018.

N. Kaikôura and . Zealand, Earthquake. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am, vol.108

R. Longo and J. Baldock, Figure 1: Map of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador., Dir. Gen. Geol. Min

J. Mariniere, J. Nocquet, C. Beauval, J. Champenois, L. Audin et al., Geodetic evidence for shallow creep along the Quito fault, Ecuador, Geophysical Journal International, vol.220, issue.3, pp.2039-2055, 2019.

J. Mccalpin, Chapter 3 Paleoseismology in Extensional Tectonic Environments, International Geophysics, pp.171-269, 2009.

J. Nocquet, P. Jarrin, M. Vallée, P. A. Mothes, R. Grandin et al., Supercycle at the Ecuadorian subduction zone revealed after the 2016 Pedernales earthquake, Nature Geoscience, vol.10, issue.2, pp.145-149, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01737651

J. Nocquet, J. C. Villegas-lanza, M. Chlieh, P. A. Mothes, F. Rolandone et al., Motion of continental slivers and creeping subduction in the northern Andes, Nature Geoscience, vol.7, issue.4, pp.287-291, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01402164

J. L. Pindell and L. Kennan, Tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean and northern South America in the mantle reference frame: an update, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol.328, issue.1, pp.1-55, 2009.

P. J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell et al., IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0?50,000 Years cal BP, Radiocarbon, vol.55, issue.4, pp.1869-1887, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02470111

D. W. Rodgers and T. A. Little, World's largest coseismic strike-slip offset: The 1855 rupture of the Wairarapa Fault, New Zealand, and implications for displacement/length scaling of continental earthquakes, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, vol.111, issue.B12, pp.n/a-n/a, 2006.

P. Samaniego, D. Barba, C. Robin, M. Fornari, and B. Bernard, Eruptive history of Chimborazo volcano (Ecuador): A large, ice-capped and hazardous compound volcano in the Northern Andes, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, vol.221-222, pp.33-51, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00682542

P. A. Semanante, Sismologia del Terremoto de PELILEO. Quito.: Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, 1950.

J. P. Soulas, A. Eguez, H. Yepes, and H. Perez, Tectonica activa y riesgo sismico, Bol. Geol. Ecuat, vol.2, pp.3-11, 1991.

R. A. Spikings and P. V. Crowhurst, (U?Th)/He thermochronometric constraints on the late Miocene?Pliocene tectonic development of the northern Cordillera Real and the Interandean Depression, Ecuador, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol.17, issue.4, pp.239-251, 2004.

A. Tibaldi, L. Ferrari, and G. Pasquarè, Landslides triggered by earthquakes and their relations with faults and mountain slope geometry: an example from Ecuador, Geomorphology, vol.11, issue.3, pp.215-226, 1995.

A. Tibaldi, A. Rovida, and C. Corazzato, Late Quaternary kinematics, slip-rate and segmentation of a major Cordillera-parallel transcurrent fault: The Cayambe-Afiladores-Sibundoy system, NW South America, Journal of Structural Geology, vol.29, issue.4, pp.664-680, 2007.

S. Vaca, M. Vallée, J. Nocquet, and A. Alvarado, Active deformation in Ecuador enlightened by a new waveform-based catalog of earthquake focal mechanisms, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, vol.93, pp.449-461, 2019.

C. Vallejo, R. A. Spikings, L. Luzieux, W. Winkler, D. Chew et al., The early interaction between the Caribbean Plateau and the NW South American Plate, Terra Nova, vol.18, issue.4, pp.264-269, 2006.

T. Winter, J. Avouac, and A. Lavenu, Late Quaternary kinematics of the Pallatanga strike-slip fault (Central Ecuador) from topographic measurements of displaced morphological features, Geophysical Journal International, vol.115, issue.3, pp.905-920, 1993.

C. Witt, J. Bourgois, F. Michaud, M. Ordoñez, N. Jiménez et al., Development of the Gulf of Guayaquil (Ecuador) during the Quaternary as an effect of the North Andean block tectonic escape, Tectonics, vol.25, issue.3, pp.n/a-n/a, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00407626

C. Woodward and . Consultant, San francisco, cal., and USA,. lnvestigaciones para los estudios del riesgo sismico del sitio de la presa Agoyan, Technical Report for the Agoyan Dam Project, lnstituto Ecuadoriano de Electrification (INECEL), 1981.

Y. Yagi, R. Okuwaki, B. Enescu, A. Kasahara, A. Miyakawa et al., Rupture process of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in relation to the thermal structure around Aso volcano, Earth, Planets and Space, vol.68, issue.1, 2016.

H. Yepes, L. Audin, A. Alvarado, C. Beauval, J. Aguilar et al., A new view for the geodynamics of Ecuador: Implication in seismogenic source definition and seismic hazard assessment, Tectonics, vol.35, issue.5, pp.1249-1279, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01744891

G. Yu, X. Xu, Y. Klinger, G. Diao, G. Chen et al., Fault-Scarp Features and Cascading-Rupture Model for the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Eastern Tibetan Plateau, China, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol.100, issue.5B, pp.2590-2614, 2010.