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SO2 and tephra emissions during the December 22, 2018 Anak Krakatau flank-collapse eruption

Abstract : On December 22, 2018 the south-western flank of Anak Krakatau collapsed into the sea, removing 93.8×106m3of subaerial lavas, and generated a tsunami. Synchronously with the collapse, a large volcanic plume of SO2andash (14–15 km in height) has formed, marking the onset of a paroxysmal eruption lasting from December 22, 2018to January 06, 2019. From remote sensing analysis, we show that the eruption can be divided into three mainphases. Phase I and II show both tephra and gas emissions while phase III is mostly degassing. The total amount ofSO2injected in the atmosphere is 173±52 kt, while the minimum bulk magma volume emplaced, estimated from atopographic reconstruction, is∼45×106m3. This value compares well with a petrologic-based estimate of 56.4×106m3, making the existence of external sulphur sources and sinks quite unlikely. The ice-rich ash plume formationshows that a strong sea-water/magma interaction was responsible for the phreatomagmatic activity throughout theeruption. However, we distinguish a first Vulcanian blast-derived eruption (lasting 40 min) just after the collapsehaving a Mass Eruption Rate (MER) of 9×105kg s−1, followed by a sustained lower-intensity eruption resultingin ash emissions over hours (MER = 5×105kg s−1). From December 23, daytime photos show typical Surtseyanactivity.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 16, 2019 - 11:26:35 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, March 4, 2020 - 12:12:02 PM

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Mathieu Gouhier, Raphael Paris. SO2 and tephra emissions during the December 22, 2018 Anak Krakatau flank-collapse eruption. Volcanica, Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, 2019, 2 (2), pp.91-103. ⟨10.30909/vol.02.02.91103⟩. ⟨hal-02413511⟩

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